2012 社会コミュニケーションプログラム Communication with Society Program      
(Grant Number)
(Project Title)
インドネシアにおけるコミュニティ基盤型森林管理をめぐるマルチ・ステークホルダー・ワークショップ -参加型土地利用と保全計画の策定をめざして
Multi-Stakeholder Workshops on Community-Based Forest Managements in Indonesia :Towards Participatory Land Use and Conservation Planning
原田  公
Akira Harada
Japan Tropical Forest Action Network (JATAN)
(Grant Amount)
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

アジア隣人プログラムによるプロジェクト支援によりJATANではリアウ州で住民の主体的な森林管理の基盤形成のためのキャパビル支援を手掛けてきた。今回企画するワークショップでは、住民組織、現地政府の森林セクター、関連企業、非政府組織、国際的援助機関など多様なマルチステークホルダーが、インドネシアにおける土地利用を巡る軋轢の回避と住民基盤型森林管理の促進といった課題に向き合いそれぞれに異なる経験値と言語から集約的な協議を行い知恵の共創と解決策を模索する。リアウ州(パカンバル)でのワークショップでは、「村落林(Hutan Desa)」をはじめとする住民参加型森林管理スキーム(CBFM)を焦点に各地の取組について実情を報告しあい、州におけるCBFM促進に向け、各ステークホルダー間の連携強化の枠組みを構築する。ジャカルタでのワークショップでは、気候変動対策としての植林計画・REDDプラス事業促進策といった中央政府による森林政策やFPIC(十分な情報に基づく事前の自発的同意)の原則履行など広い視点から、コミュニティが地域の森林を持続的に保全・利用するうえで今後、どのような方策が促進されるべきかを議論し、協議成果の援用可能なテキスト・マニュアル化を目指す。

Based on the results of JATAN's village forest (Hutan Desa) project funded by the Toyota Foundation, multi stakeholder workshop, with participants from a wide range of backgrounds including representatives of local communities, non-governmental organizations, international financial institutions, government agencies and the private sector, provides an opportunity for intensive dialogue on land tenure issue to resolve land conflicts and promote community-based forest management. The workshop provides multiple opportunities to share knowledge, define problems and find solutions. Participants learn the opportunities of community-based forest managements including Hutan Desa scheme and debate potential socio economic impacts of REDD+, following dialogue processes with respect to practical facilitation of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC).

Workshops are planned at two levels -– local government/state level (Riau) and at the national level. At a regional level local NGO network, Jikalahari / Mitra Insani lead a roundtable discussion on the findings of land issues occurring between local communities and private sector bodies around the province. National-level workshop is administered by Kemitraan. Jakarta workshop is designed to bring people together from various perspectives, supported by the Ford Foundation, who has been involved in many projects of rural development in Indonesia.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)

Forest management policies which tend to be in favor of large-scale business activities have caused inequality in forest resources management and, at the same time, contributed to the limited control of and access to land for forest-dependent communities. In addition to causing damage to forest resources, they also cause long-lasting social conflicts due to the absence of rights over forest areas that belong to indigenous and local communities.

It is undisputed that such extractive forest management and policies failed to improve the welfare of communities who live in and around the forest. As a matter of fact, 10.2 million out of 48.8 million people living in and around forests live below the poverty line. A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Forestry found that there are 16,760 villages (52.60% of the total number of villages in Indonesia) located in and around the forest area (Report of the Ministry of Forestry, 2006)]. The most updated data shows that there are 31,957 villages which interact with forest while 71.06% of these villages rely on forest resources for their life (CSO Road Map on Forest Tenure, 2011)

Since the reformation era, the paradigm of forest management in Indonesia shifted away from state-based to community-based management. This is in line with the explanation of Law 41 of 1999 on Forestry, "From the perspective of production functions, the alignment to the people's side is much a key of forest management success. Therefore, forest management practices that are merely oriented to timber production, and pay less attention to the rights which belong to and involve the communities need to be redirected to management which is oriented to the entire forest resources potentials and based on community empowerment.

The Indonesian Forestry Law No.41 of 1999 contains a number of schemes including privately owned forest (Hutan Hak), recognition of traditional rights (Hutan Adat), community-based forest management (HKM), and village forest management (Hutan Desa). Hutan Desa became operational under the Decree from the Ministry of Forestry No.P.49/Menhut-11/2008 of August 25, 2008. The government started to implement Hutan Desa framework which aims to resolve tenure conflicts through the provision of village forests.

The Ministry of Forestry has determined the ambitious target of Community Forestry (HKM) for an area of 2 million hectares and Village forest (Hutan Desa) 500,000 hectares by the end of 2014.

However, the achievement of HKM and Village Forest is still far away from the determined target. By December 2012, only 58,099 hectares for the issuance HKM license (IUPHKM) by regents.

Regarding Village Forest, since the issuance of the Ministerial Regulation in August 2008, the area stipulated by regents has only reached 15,611 hectares.

Since 2009 when funded by the Toyota Foundation Asian Neighbors Program, JATAN has been working with Yayasan Mitra lnsani on application projects of Hutan Desa in some villages located in Riau Province, Sumatra island.

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