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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2013 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  個人研究助成B  
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D13-R-0465
題目
(Project Title)
ビッグデータからビッグビジョンへ ―英国の市民社会組織によるデータ立脚型研究における挑戦と機会
Big Data, Big Visions: Challenges and Opportunities for British Civil Society Engagement with Data-Driven Research
代表者名
(Representative)
ウィリアム・アレン
William Allen
代表者所属
(Organization)
オクスフォード大学移民·政策·社会センター
ESRC Centre on Migration, Policy, and Society, University of Oxford
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 1,400,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

「ビッグデータ」という言葉は、近年、さまざまな学問分野やマスメディアで広く用いられている。「ビッグ」という表現には、絶対的なデータの大きさのみならず、大量の情報を分析することを通じ、複雑な問題を見通す新たな視座がひらかれるという考え方も含意されている。公共を担う存在として、倫理、政策、または社会にかかわる主張を展開する非政府勢力である市民社会組織にとっては、目的の達成のため、そのようなデータに立脚する研究を推進することが重要である。しかし、そのなかでも、データを活用する研究を行う力のある組織と、そのような力のない組織の間では、経済的・技術的・情報的格差が生じるリスクが存在する。さらに、そのような研究が実践されることで、英国の市民社会組織全般に、どのように、またどれほどの性格の変化がもたらされているかは明らかではない。本プロジェクトは、質問票調査の分析と民族誌的インタビュー調査を組み合わせ、英国の市民社会組織が、ミッションを果たすために、どのように、またどれほどのデータを利用しているのかを解明する。英国の政治や政策形成の文脈における「ビッグデータ」、「データ立脚型研究」、または「エビデンス」などの概念には、固有の価値観が付随する。英国の市民社会組織によるデータの利用における認識や前提となる考え方を調査し、彼らの間でどのような組織のあり方が構想されているのか、批判的に考察する。

 'Big Data' enjoys currency across several academic disciplines and popular media. Besides the absolute size of datasets, 'bigness' also refers to the idea that analysing vast amounts of information can open novel perspectives on complex issues. Civil society organisations, broadly conceived as non-governmental groups having a public presence and expressing certain ethical, policy, or social views, have a stake in marshalling such data-driven research to achieve their agendas. However, there is the risk of divisions-economic, technical, digital-appearing between those who have the capacity to successfully use or interpret data-driven research and those who do not. Furthermore, it is unclear how and to what extent such research is changing the nature of UK civil society. Combining survey analysis with ethnographic interviewing, this project will show how and to what extent British civil society organisations harness data to achieve their missions. Then, by interrogating the perceptions and assumptions underpinning these practical uses, I will critically examine what kinds of civil societies are being envisioned and prioritised over others as particular values are attached to concepts like 'Big Data', 'data-driven research', and 'evidence' in the context of British politics and policy.
 

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)



Across business, higher education, policy, and media, the term ‘Big Data’ has become a buzzword. It promises a great deal: better decisionmaking, more insight into complicated issues, new ways of seeing the world in which we live. But, as with any trend that makes great promises, it’s important to critically engage not only with the phenomenon itself, but also with what it claims to do and for whom. What kind of world is being created as data of all sorts and sizes become central to the ways that people live, work, and perceive?
 The project Big Data, Big Visions aimed to understand the roles that data including but not limited to information generated through research play in civil society contexts. Civil society refers to voluntary, non-governmental, or community-based associations that lie outside the public or private sectors. As a result, sometimes this is called the ‘third sector’. In many countries, civil societies are increasingly diverse and engaged in a range of causes or activities that involve communicating data, information, and evidence. Campaigning, advocacy, lobbying, awareness-building: all of these tasks can, to different extents, use knowledge for different purposes. Yet, despite their importance in society, it’s not well-understood how these kinds of organisations do that. 
 By interviewing key staffmembers of UK-based civil society organisations working on social welfare and migration issues, as well as analysing these organisations’ published documents, this project aimed to find out how Big Data and research evidence appeared in their everyday work as well as why. It had four sets of findings: (1) that Big Data and use of large-scale datasets were not so prevalent in their activities or published work; (2) that a range of factors relating to individuals, organisations, the civil society sector, and the specific issues at hand influenced how these civil society groups thought about data and evidence; (3) there are important lessons for researchers and civil society groups as they engage with one another; and (4) ethics and values are vital to consider as part of the story of how data are currently used in public life as well as how they will be used in the future.

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