According to the Office of Foreign Workers Administration (2012), there were 1.33 million migrant workers working. Of the aforementioned, eighty-seven percent are migrant workers from three neighboring countries, namely Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar. These migrant workers work in labor-intensive sector as unskilled migrant workers. Though Thailand has long gained benefit from these migrant workers, these migrant workers has been facing with the social exclusion. According to the survey of Yongyuth Chalamwong et al., (2011) many of them neither access into social services nor participate in community activities. Therefore, the study aims to seek for the solutions that enhancing the social inclusiveness for unskilled migrant workers in Thailand. This study will cover four main issues including; 1) the situation of unskilled migrant workers; 2) the study on law, regulations and the policies regarding the migrant workers; 3) the analysis on institution and 4) the challenges and solutions to improve social inclusion for unskilled migrant workers. The conceptual framework will include of the study on power relations between migrant workers and host country as well as factors that will lead to more or less social inclusiveness. This study will apply qualitative research, e.g. documentary research, in-depth interview and focus group discussion.
実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)
Most of the migrant workers, especially unskilled migrants, are still excluded from the Thai society. The study aims to find solutions, which help improving the livelihood of unskilled migrant workers in Thailand. Currently number of migrant is approximately 3 million both living and working. This study focuses on three main issues, (1) the situation of migrant workers in Thailand; (2) social protection schemes and the accessibility; and (3) related policies. A qualitative research is applied as the main methodology such as documented review, in-depth interview with the key informants from related stakeholders, and the focus group discussion.
From the study, despite the Thai government policies seem to expand the coverage on social protection and social security for migrant workers, these policies do not uplift the social inclusion of migrant workers. The migrant workers and their followers in Thailand are still the marginalized group of the society. Most of them, especially unskilled workers with illegal immigration status, are lack of basic rights. They cannot even access to compulsory schemes.
In summary, the social inclusion of migrant workers is difficult to achieve because it depends on the primary factor, the attitude of the hosted communities. If the Thai people could change the attitude towards migrant workers and apply the rights-based approach policies, the migrant workers will have an opportunity for the social inclusion.