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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2014 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  B 個人研究助成  
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D14-R-0130
題目
(Project Title)
半島部マレーシアにおける泥炭湿地林保全に向けた環境倫理の研究
Exploring New Environmental Ethics for Conservation of Peatland Swamp Forests in Peninsular Malaysia
代表者名
(Representative)
タパン・クマル・ナス
Tapan Kumar Nath
代表者所属
(Organization)
ノッティンガム大学マレーシア校生命科学部
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 700,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

近年マレーシアでは、泥炭湿地林での大規模なアブラヤシ栽培が社会と環境に悪影響を及ぼす恐れがあるとして激しい議論が交わされ、市民の間でも懸念が広がっている。このような背景から、本プロジェクトでは、泥炭湿地林の保護や維持に向けた環境倫理について、環境価値、社会的態度、具体的行動、そして政策の面から考察する。具体的には、泥炭湿地林管理における市民参加を促進する方法や、REDD+(レッドプラス)などのカーボン・オフセットの仕組みの利用法を考える。泥炭湿地林の環境価値は、仮想評価法を用いた一般参加方式により評価する。環境倫理の考え方を推進することで、政府や市民の意識が泥炭湿地林を他の用途に転用しない方向へと変わり、泥炭湿地林保護プログラムへの積極的な関与が期待できる。カーボン・オフセットの仕組みを持続可能な泥炭湿地林管理に取り入れる方法についても提案する。

  Over recent years, oil palm cultivation on peatland swamp forests (PSF) in Malaysia has created intense  debate due to its potentially adverse social and environmental effects. There is growing public concern  regarding the harmful socio-environmental impacts of large scale oil palm production. Considering these backdrops, this project would explore the environmental ethics defined as environmental values, societal attitudes, actions, and policies to protect and sustain PSF. It seeks ways on how society can be involved in the management of PSF and how to incorporate PSF into carbon credit-offset schemes such as REDD+. The environmental ethical values of PSF will be assessed in a participatory manner following the contingent valuation method. It is expected that the new environmental ethics of PSF would motivate local people and government not to convert peatland into other land uses, and that they will actively involved in PSF conservation programs. Moreover, ways will be figure out to incorporate forest carbon financing mechanism (e.g. REDD+) into sustainable PSF management.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)



Over recent years, industrial plantation development on peatland and / or peat swamp forests (PSF) areas has created intense debate due to its potentially adverse social and environmental effects. Research on PSF mostly focuses on carbon emission and biodiversity. Even though forests provide many benefits to local community but values of PSF to local people is still poorly understood. In the context of PSF these values may explain or emphasize social, cultural and environmental values of non-human natural objects. The values of individuals highly affect how they perceive about the existing PSF and as a result affect the actions taken by individuals in a society towards its existence. Considering the above research background this project explored new environmental ethics for the conservation of PSF. Environmental ethics is defined here as environmental values, societal attitudes, actions, and policies to protect and sustain PSF. It helps to understand the inherent linkages between society and peatland environment. The research also sought ways on how society can be involved in the management of PSF. Finally, some policy recommendations are made on how to incorporate PSF into carbon credit-offset schemes (e.g. REDD+) that has recently been promoted in many countries.
The study was carried out by interviewing 150 respondents and holding three focus group discussions in some degraded PSF areas in Perak, and North and South Selangor Peat Swamp Forests. The study adopted participatory rural appraisal and contingent valuation methods. The respondents appreciated PSF for direct values including timber (15% respondents), vegetables (25%) source of fish (40%) and water for agriculture (45%). More than 80% respondents reported environmental values of PSF that includes flood prevention, biodiversity conservation, fresh air, soil fertility, perennial water source, and reduction of storm damages. They also reported several health and cultural benefits including sources of medicinal plants (60%), fresh food (50%), pure environment (90%), and tourism (85%). Even though they mentioned about demerits of PSF conversion such as deforestation (90%), biodiversity loss (90%), flooding (88%), and water scarcity (86%), they also claimed that PSF conversion provides them land for agriculture (50%), housing (20%) and for oil palm (60%). The respondents felt that the government agencies, large and small-scale oil palm companies are equally responsible for PSF degradation. They proposed government should enact ban (80%) on PSF conversion and build community-forestry department-NGO partnership (90%) for PSF management. They sincerely wanted to contribute to PSF conservation through protection (75%), tree planting (80%), donation in cash (60%) and supplying seedlings, and joining in awareness creation program (85%). The societal and environmental values of PSF warrant that these forests should be conserved for the welfare of society and for other natural beings and that the participation of local community in the conservation and rehabilitation is very crucial. This kind of collaboration among community people, non-government organizations and state agencies can be promoted in the management country’s natural resources where relationships between community and natural environment are interconnected.
For wider dissemination of the results a paper has been submitted and accepted for oral presentation at 15th International Peat Congress to be held in Sarawak, Malaysia from 15-19 August 2016. After the presentation a modified version will be submitted to a journal for publication. For general audience a newspaper article will be published. Due to several interactions with research team members and field day with students of Nottingham University the villagers have become more aware about the importance of PSF in their life and have been motivated to conserve the forests as their own resource. Discussion with forestry department officials revealed that they are now keen to involve local community in the conservation of the unique peat swamp ecosystem.









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