2014 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  B 個人研究助成  
(Grant Number)
(Project Title)
〈災害時経済〉の下でのモラル・エコノミーとボランティア経済(圏)の生成と展開 ―復興の社会経済分析
It Unfolds with Generation of Morals Economy and the Volunteer Economy (an Area) under <Disasters-time Economy>: A Social Economic Assessment of the Revival
Kamon Nitagai
Tokyo University
(Grant Amount)
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

復旧過程の全体を捉えるには、災害時の公的資金支援分析の他、災害時の経済的支援活動、民間の支援金、非貨幣的なボランティア活動など、災害時の復旧・復興の資金・活動等の広い意味でのエコノミ-の重層性を全体として、かつ復興カレンダ-という時系列的に分析する必要のため、〈災害時経済(Disasters-Time Economy)〉と〈モラル・エコノミーmorals economy〉、〈ボランティア経済圏〉概念を準備し、それらの概念のもとに実態調査研究を行い、市民等の供出・寄附・活動による〈災害共同財(commons)〉とも呼ぶべき市民共同財の形成による「連帯経済」(わかちあい)という社会的仕組みの萌芽を明らかにしたい。そこから、復旧・復興過程全体的仕組みの実態と各経済領域の果たす役割の実態を明らかし、地域再生のプログラムと、災害時に形成される「市民社会」の「連帯経済」の社会的意義について研究する。これらの研究の成果として、復興から新しい社会の形成を支える「連帯経済」、「市民社会」の物的基盤の特異的条件を明らかにする。

     With the experience of two severe disasters (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake disaster of 1995 and the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster of 2011), I wish to consider "subsistence" as human life, existence equaling the basic activities of life, an essential mutual act-like existence economy. In this study, I pursue a positive development of "Disaster Time Economics" as a research object under the larger framework of the formation of a "moral economy", as part of a critical process. 
     In this study, in order that a stricken area and society may aim at realization of the new methodology about "creative revival" for newly developing independently, research involving the state of the revival fund of a wide sense is performed.
     Nevertheless, there is an overall understanding of who, in what areas, and using what methodology, has conducted research in the restoration and revival process, as well as the weak points that tend to hinder the process. There is no research on the rationality and function of public finance expenditures or national sources expenditures.
     Therefore, in this project, the term "disasters-time economy" is newly prepared.
     From this concept, many activities of the project, service, support, self-efforts, etc. of a domain social and private from a public sphere in connection with the process of a maintenance/restoration under the disaster are grasped.
     The feature and subject point of the process are clarified.
     The market economy order which is going to be produced in this process does the basic work which finds out the economic order for another self-subsistence over the life.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)

災害被災者の支援のため、特異な社会経済的行為の出現を捉える概念に関わる社会思想や理論を検討し、〈災害時経済〉Disasters-Time Economy〉、〈モラル・エコノミー〉、〈ボランティア経済(圏)〉、〈現代コモンズ;社会的災害共同財〉の4つの概念を準備した。これらの概念を介し、被災地に出現している支援活動の特性が見られる対象団体や事象につき、実践活動および調査研究を行った。
〈ボランティア経済(圏)〉とは、被災者の自立を「支えあう」、〈実践規範〉を伴った〈モラル・エコノミー〉という、市場経済とは別様な活動によって成り立つ具体的な経済行為群=〈実践プログラム〉や、そこから創出される新しい社会関係、またその比較的安定的な空間的広がりが、〈ボランティア経済圏〉である。この検証に関しては、盛岡市で本プロジェクが2013年組織した、岩手県沿岸を中心とする被災者の〈生きがい仕事づくり〉の復興グッズの諸団体を結集し、共同販売・情報共有の連携を図る実践活動を行った(参加団体16)。その組織化の実践は、本プロジェクトが地元の老舗のパート(パークアベニュ-・カワトク)と折衝し、年2回5日間、100坪の催事場の無償提供を、また小さな団体は販売人も出せないので、地元の盛岡情報ビジネス専門学校交渉、学生の支援者を確保し、岩手発「手しごと 絆フェア」の名前で、これまで7回、共同販売を実施(出品グッズ数は2000アイテム)。売り上げは初期には140万程度であったが、この数年で250程度に上がってきた。このように市民が、市場経済の経済合理性とは異なる動機、すなわち被災者との繋がり、連帯、わかちあいという動機で経済行為を行うのが、〈災害時経済〉時に特異に出現する、〈モラル・エコノミー〉、〈ボランティア経済〉の事象といえる(似田貝;2016)。〈現代コモンズ;社会的災害共同財〉は、〈災害時経済〉時に、市民が、生存規範に基づいて実践される社会共同財産と考えている。対象として阪神・淡路大震災以降災害地で誕生した、市民の災害支援の寄附が支援団体に直接寄せられ、これを持続的に市民活動が出来るように自ら基金化する活動している諸団体の、ファンドレイジングの設立しそうと配分の考え方について研究調査した。更にその実践団体による、ワークショップを行い、活動の意義と今後の可能性について討議した。こうした被災者自立支援、地域問題の社会問題の担い手へ市民事業を、公的資金に頼らず、市民の私的財産(貨幣、生活物資、労働力)の供出、提供、寄附という「社会の中の経済」の役割を果たす、「連帯経済」の基本的物的基盤の形成がみられ、〈現代コモンズ;社会的災害共同財〉という市民社会の特異な社会経済的活動の出現を検証した(似田貝;2017)。4つの概念と調査により、〈災害時経済〉のもとで出現する特異な社会的経済行為が、連帯、わかちあいという動機による市民の集合的行為が、新しい「社会の中の経済」の仕組みの萌芽とみなされる。

〔Project problem〕
To take the whole of the process of the restoration, in addition to the public fund support analysis in case of the disaster, it grasps the whole of including social economy act in the wide senses such as the fund - the activity of the restoration - the revival in case of the disaster and the economic support activity in case of the disaster, the support money of the civilian, the monetary fault volunteer activities must be analyzed.
It studies about the social meaning of the program of the area reconstruction and " the join economy " of " the civil society " which is formed in case of the disaster from there.
〔Contents - the method of the research 〕
To support a victim of an accident of the disaster, it reviewed a social thought and theory about the concept to take the appearance of the socioeconomic act which is peculiar and it prepared four concepts of 〈 the economy in case of the disaster 〉 Disasters-Time Economy〉, 〈 the moral economy 〉, 〈 the volunteer economy ( the area ) 〉, 〈 present-day Commons ; the social disaster cooperation property 〉.
The seen object organization and the phenomenon had the characteristic of the support activity which is sprung to the damaged area through these concepts and it did a practice activity and a research.
〔Implementation of the project〕
The specific economic behavior group which stands up with another style な activity = 〈 the practice program 〉 of the independence of the victim of an accident of 〈 the volunteer economy ( the area ) 〉 with the market economy, " it supports each other ", 〈 the moral economy 〉 with 〈 the practice model 〉, and the new social relation which is created from there and also the comparatively stable spatial expanse are 〈 the volunteer economic bloc 〉.
As for this verification, this project gathered the organizations of the revival goods of 〈 the making of work of the purpose of life 〉 of the victim of an accident centered on the Iwate Prefecture coast which was organized for 2013 years in Morioka City and did the practice activity to attempt for the common account - information sharing to cooperate ( Participation organization 16 ).
It negotiates with the part ( park avenue ・kawatoku ) at the long-established store where the this project is local about the practice of the organization, twice per year, for 5 days, it secures a free offer in the 100 tubo exhibition space and also the supporter of the Morioka information business vocational college negotiation, the student which is local because the seller, too, can not let out a small organization and by the name of Iwate time "craft of doing a hand the tether fair ", it implements seven times, a common account so far ( The number of the exhibition goodses is 2000 items ).
The sales were about 1.4 million in the early stages but went up to about 250 within these several years.
In this way, in the citizen, it is possible to say doing an economic behavior in the different motive, i.e. the motive, the relation to the victim of an accident, the solidarity, the partaking with him, to be the phenomenon of 〈 the moral economy 〉, 〈 the volunteer economy 〉 which emerges in the resemblance which is peculiar in case of 〈 the economy in case of the disaster 〉 with the economic rationality of the market economy ( Nitagai ; 2016 ).
In case of 〈 the economy in case of the disaster 〉, the citizen thinks that 〈 present-day Commons ; the social disaster cooperation property 〉 is the social cooperation fortune which is practiced based on the survival model.
It investigated a research about of establishing so the way of thinking of the distribution of the fund raging of the working organizations to make foundation personally as the contributing of disaster support by the citizen who was born in the disaster-stricken area since Hanshin Co. - Awaji great earthquake as the object is directly sent by the support organization and can do a citizen activity continuously in this.
It did and it discussed a workshop by the practice organization more about the meaning of the activity and the possibility in the future.
The forming of the basic material basis of " the join economy " which doesn't depend on the public fund for the citizen business to the bearer of the social problem of such support of the independence of the victim of an accident, the area problem and plays the role of " the economy in the society ", the supply, the offer, the contributing which is made ( the money, living goods, the workforce ) *of* the private-goods of the citizen, was seen and it verified the appearance of the socioeconomic activity of the civil society of 〈 present-day Commons ; the social disaster cooperation property 〉 which is peculiar ( Nitagai ; 2017 ).
The social economic behavior which is peculiar which emerges under 〈 the economy in case of the disaster 〉 is thought of as being solidarity and the collective act of the citizen by the motive, the partaking, is thought of as being the embryo of the mechanism of new " the economy in the society " with four concepts and four pieces of investigation.

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