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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2014 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  B 個人研究助成  
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D14-R-0172
題目
(Project Title)
都市先住民に適する居住空間とは ―台湾新北市における原住民不法占拠コミュニティとその移転策の考察
Creating Livable Space in Cities: The Contestation Over Urban Indigenous Squatter Communities in New Taipei City
代表者名
(Representative)
杉本 智紀
Tomonori Sugimoto
代表者所属
(Organization)
スタンフォード大学人類学部
Department of Anthropology, Stanford University
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 1,300,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

  第二次大戦後台湾社会は急速に都市化し、全国人口の2%を占める台湾先住民の約半数が都市部に移住した。台北市郊外新北市には、移住してきた先住民により国の許可なく国有地に建設された「違建部落」と呼ばれる不法占拠コミュニティが9つ存在する。新北市政府はこうしたコミュニティを都市問題とみなし、強制立ち退きを数度行い、部落と数十年間対立を続けてきたが、昨年方針を転換し、現在の部落近辺に先住民の文化特質を考慮した新たな住宅を建設し、部落を移転させることを決定した。本研究は、聞き取り、参与観察、資料調査を用い、この移転の過程を観察し、政府が違建部落に介入してきた歴史や、政府見解とは異なった部落住民の自らの部落への愛着心や先住民としての都市生活に対するビジョンを描き出す。また、移転が住民の親族関係やコミュニティ内部の関係性に与える影響も考察する。多様な人々が共存でき、社会的弱者にも暮らしやすい都市づくり、そして都市に暮らす先住民の人々の文化・言語の継承の権利といった問題をこの移転策を通して考えることによって、本研究は台湾や日本のような先住民を有する社会の未来における新たな価値の創出をめざす。

     As a result of rapid industrialization and urbanization under the post-WWII KMT regime, many of the Austronesian indigenous people in Taiwan migrated to large cities like Taipei beginning in the 1960s. On Taipei's peripheries, some of these urban indigenous people, mostly of the Amis tribe, began to form squatter communities in the 1970s. Since then, the municipal government has continuously attempted to demolish these communities, but as of 2014 nine indigenous squatter communities exist in New Taipei City, a doughnut-shaped suburban municipality that surrounds Taipei. In order to resolve these communities' illegality, the municipal government of New Taipei City announced in 2014 that it would relocate these communities into affordable "social housing," which is said to take into consideration indigenous squatters' cultural differences from the Han-Chinese majority. The aim of this research project is to ethnographically observe this resettlement process and think about how best to create a livable space within urban areas for indigenous people, for whom cities have become new homes. Through interviews and participant observation, I will examine the processes in which these indigenous squatter communities have become "problems" that need government and non-government intervention as well as how the current relocation plan is perceived by residents of squatter communities themselves. The perspectives of residents will provide an alternative vision of what urban indigenous communities should look like in the future, which might be different from that of the New Taipei City government. As relocation proceeds, I will also investigate what impact resettlement will have on the livelihoods of urban indigenous squatters. Through this research, I hope to contribute to the production of new values about indigenous cultures, livelihoods, and rights in Taiwan and many other contexts where indigenous struggles continue. 

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