2014 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  B 個人研究助成  
(Grant Number)
(Project Title)
Community-based Integrated Hazards Mapping: A Disaster Management Approach among the Ifugaos of the Philippine Cordilleras
Rachel Guimbatan-Fadgyas
Philippine Institute of Environmental Planners
(Grant Amount)
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

(1) 科学的データと伝承情報を統合してハザードマップを作成する手法
(2) 災害リスクの高い地域を特定する統合ハザードマップの作成
(3) 統合ハザードマップ作成手順のマニュアル化

     This project aims to contribute to contingency planning and disaster prevention through the development of an integrated hazards mapping approach combining scientific and indigenous methods of identifying high risk prone areas. Land histories, legends and ground information from the indigenous communities will be validated by scientific data and vice versa through collaborative mapping procedures. This joint mapping approach shall facilitate interaction between technical professionals and the local people to enrich map information and build a shared consciousness on minimizing disasters and maximizing resources. Conducted by an insider who is a professional planner belonging to the indigenous community, it also highlights the importance of self-direction in the development of guides of solving present and future problems. It shall produce three main outputs: (1) a hazards-mapping methodology integrating technical data and indigenous knowledge, (2) thematic maps identifying hazards-prone areas, and (3) process documentation of the joint mapping process. The project shall be implemented in the province of Ifugao in the Philippine Cordillera Administrative Region. 

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)

The importance of integrating local and indigenous knowledge in disaster risk-reduction management has been acknowledged in international and national frameworks, giving weight to context. This is best exhibited in disaster-hit areas lived in by indigenous communities that can provide valuable management directions. However, current recommendations lack demonstration on how to utilize indigenous knowledge into the actual planning process in areas where action is needed. Apart from this, there are social issues preventing the local communities from contributing their knowledge that needs to be studied and better understood. Emphasis on context, too, leaves the job of knowledge articulation to indigenous communities on the assumption that they know which local information are useful for risk-reduction. But in these communities, assistance in the regeneration of knowledge is needed. This is because in these marginalized areas, opportunities of self-expression are rare and problem-solving capabilities are weakened by the combined effects of poverty and disaster.

Activities of this research were geared to test the importance of integrating the mapping of place names in an indigenous community into the local public planning process to demonstrate its significance in disaster risk reduction management. It presents a proto-type process of integrating indigenous knowledge with science-informed data into mainstream planning. The mapping was applied in selected communities of the Province of Ifugao in the Philippine Cordilleras. Because of the nature of the study and the fact that the researcher is a professional environmental planner and a local to this indigenous community, this was conducted as a participatory action research with the researcher assuming the tasks of mapping facilitation and map development. Reflections are articulated from the community’s perspective and in their interests.

The research started by consulting key movers in the local government and civil society for a review of similar research attempts and advice. This resulted to the selection of three barangays (district communities) as pilot mapping areas. Data gathered from these informed on the manner of conducting activities on twenty-five other barangays. Data collection made use of focus group discussions and a GPS-assisted windshield survey along a 129 kilometer stretch of the national road, which is the actual coverage of the project. From the process of joint-mapping production, the project arrived at a recommended methodology of mapping place names within the context of the public planning system of the Philippines as well as fitted to the particularities of the community where this was conducted. The methodology and documentation is in a paper written by the researcher. The map production is finalized within the community. Two basic maps are produced: a map of place names, which is basically a plain map of locations and villages in the community, and a landslide risk susceptibility map produced from a combination of maps by the community and science-informed base maps.

As observed, current geographic data on disaster risks and land tendencies were validated by the names given to specific spots in the locality. Rare disastrous events in the local community’s recent memory corroborated nomenclature of places, which often simply refer to historical occurrence, land formation, or abundance of resources. Also, places in different localities with similar land configurations are given the same descriptive names.

In the process of understanding the meaning of names given to specific places, the common realization between mapping facilitator and mapping participants, is that place names indicate disaster recurrence. Data from further inquiry on disaster history of places gave estimates on return period in terms of years.

For its significance in confirming information that contributes to disaster risk reduction management efficiency, it is suggested that the mapping methodology and technique be: 1) upscaled through policy and programme implementation in public planning, and 2) popularized within the planning field through professional networking. Networking activities may range from well-targeted LinkedIn discussions and forums to conferences and professional publications, all substantiated by testimonials from affected communities and practitioners in the field.

While this project was able to acquire and produce information through a method of guided discovery at the community level, it wishes to draw attention on the issue of weak coping capacities of indigenous communities in disaster-prone areas to deal with disasters. In areas where poverty is compounded with calamities, short-term relief becomes central to their existence, reducing their capabilities to realize and utilize useful knowledge that they already possess. External assistance in the form of capability building, technology, and policy support is essential with emphasis on finding right information. In order to make the contribution of indigenous knowledge to disaster risk-reduction management and public planning a reality, helping out indigenous communities to reconstruct their ability to help themselves is paramount.

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