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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2015 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  (B)個人研究助成  (B) Individual Research Grants
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D15-R-0324
題目
(Project Title)
協働実践型の遺跡保存管理―スーダンにおける協働実践を通じた文化遺産の新たな価値と文化遺産保護―
Collaborative Archaeological Site Management: Exploring a new value of cultural heritage through a collaboration with local communities in Sudan
代表者名
(Representative)
伏屋 智美
Tomomi Fushiya
代表者所属
(Organization)
ライデン大学考古学部
Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 800,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

古代から多様な文化が融合して独自の文化を育んできたスーダンには多くの古代遺跡が残り、近年、その独自性や文化の融合が研究者により見直され注目されている。しかし、文化や伝統を鑑みない開発や盗掘により、スーダン各地に残る文化的景観や遺跡が危機に瀕しており、文化遺産の保護をスーダン社会に訴えていくことは緊急の課題である。一方で、古代遺跡は地域の文化や生活と関連していることが明らかになり、スーダンにおいて、遺跡保護を訴えるためには、地域における遺跡の価値を理解し、失われつつある伝統文化の継承とあわせて、地域住民とともに考えていくことが有効ではないかというヒントを得た。本研究では、古代遺跡について、地域の文化との関連を織り交ぜながら、古代遺跡の重要性を地域住民とともに評価し、考古学的成果と地域の知識を融合した新たな遺跡の価値を用いて、地域の文化遺産継承のための教育冊子の作成を含めた協働実践型の文化遺産教育プログラムや遺跡保存の方法を探究する。

This project aims to seek for a model of a collaborative cultural heritage education and archaeological site management through re-assessing the value and roles of archaeological sites within the local community in Sudan. Sudan preserves its diverse cultural heritage which is a result of cultural mixtures over thousands of years. Archaeological sites and cultural landscape are at risk in rapidly developing Sudan, however. It is a pressing need to establish a site management method in Sudan and call for cooperation to the public to save their rich cultural heritage. This project will be conducted with local communities in the vicinity of an archaeological site, Amara West, in the northern Sudan. A recent study by the applicant found a cultural and historical relationship between the ancient site and the modern local communities. Responding to the current situation in Sudan and the findings, this project aims to establish a sustainable heritage education programme including a children's booklet to pass-on local and archaeological knowledge of the site. In order to incorporate the local knowledge and ensure sustainably of the education programme in the communities, a collaboration between the local communities and archaeologists will be at the core of the project. It is expected to re-define the value of the archaeological site as a part of local heritage through the collaborative work. Placing this new value in the center, a model for archaeological site management method in Sudan will be explored. The outcomes and experience of this project will be shared among local, Sudanese and international communities to promote heritage education and to introduce a collaborative site management programme in relation to local cultural heritage as archaeologists’ contribution to the Sudanese society and for the future of archaeological sites in Sudan.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)

スーダン北部において実施された本研究プロジェクトは、文化遺産の維持可能な保護・活用を目指し、文化遺産の考古学的な価値と地元の価値を融合する実践的な方法を探究した。文化遺産の未来は、地元住民、考古学者にとって共通した問題である一方で、相互が協働で文化遺産問題に実践的に取り組む方法は、スーダンにおいては探求されてこなかった。本プロジェクトでは、考古学の知識と地元の伝統文化、歴史に関する知識を合わせることにより、地元文化遺産の新たな価値を創造し、文化遺産の未来を描くことを目指したのである。その過程として、アマラ西遺跡で調査する考古学者と遺跡周辺のコミュニティとの協働作業を通じて、地元児童向けの教育冊子「ヌビア中部の生活文化(原題:Life in the Heart of Nubia)」をまとめた。
文化遺産の持続可能な未来のために、この研究プロジェクトでは、遺跡と地元の文化遺産の課題をひとつの児童向けの教材としてまとめた。作成過程で最も重視したのは、一歩一歩、考古学者と地元住民が協働で考え、決定していくことである。その過程で冊子のテーマは「探求・継続性・地元性」の3つを基本にすると決められた。結果、アブリ、アマラ東、エルネッタの3つのコミュニティに住む子ども向けの冊子が完成した。冊子は、地元の生活文化、農業、言語、昔話と考古学について過去と現在を比較しつつ、子どもたちが両親や祖父母に質問をしながら学び、調べることを促している。この冊子は、地元の小中学校8校とアブリにある教員研修センターにおいて配布される予定である。また、冊子とそのコンセプトを使用した文化遺産プログラムも地元の学校で実施された。このプログラムの内容は、冊子作成のボランティアとしても参加した教員を通じて、冊子の配布とともにほかの地元の学校と共有される。
プロジェクトに対し、地元住民からは、冊子の作成過程と冊子の完成が彼らの地元文化遺産を考える機会となり、今後はどのように、何をしていったらいいかを考えていきたいという意見や具体的な活動の提案などがあった。また冊子を通じて、地元の文化遺産のすばらしさを再確認する機会となったという。さらに、2017年5月にロンドンで開催されたスーダン考古学年次総会において本プロジェクトが紹介され、スーダンで活動する考古学者に対してもコミュニティプログラムの重要性を確認できた。今後スーダンにおいて同様のコミュニティ協働の文化遺産プロジェクトが実施されることが期待される。考古学者と地元コミュニティが共に文化遺産の未来のために考え、行動するアプローチは現代のスーダンだけでなく、他の国々においても重要である。特にスーダンのように考古学調査のほとんどが外国人考古学者によって実施される国においては、このアプローチは、外国人専門家と地元住民という枠組みを超えて、相互をつなげる可能性をつくりだすのである。このプロジェクトは、これらの枠組みを超えて、文化遺産の未来を共有していく重要なステップとなったといえるだろう。
本プロジェクトで作成された冊子は、アマラ西遺跡研究調査プロジェクトのブログ(以下リンク)において無料ダウンロードが可能である。
英語:https://britishmuseumamarawestblog.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/life-in-the-heart-of-nubia_childrens-book-2017_english-compressed.pdf
アラビア語:https://britishmuseumamarawestblog.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/life-in-the-heart-of-nubia_childrens-book-2017_arabic-compressed.pdf



This research project has explored a way to approach both archaeological site management and the community’s concerns about local heritage by considering archaeological and local values of heritage focusing on the locality in the northern part of Sudan. The project completed a children’s book, Life in the Heart of Nubia, as the outcome of a close collaboration with the local community members in the vicinity of an archaeological site, Amara West.
Site management measurements have often given considerable focus on preservation of the site itself. In its course, local community connection to the site – their attachment, history, and culture – have been overlooked. Such an approach not only challenges the sustainability of site management surrounded by daily life and social changes of local community, but also contributes to enhance disconnection of the site with the present society. Sudan has rich cultural heritage that represents thousands of years of history and diverse cultures. Rapid development, and a lack of resources and awareness threaten archaeological and cultural heritage unique to local communities - crafts, language, architectural styles and techniques, knowledge of agriculture, and local stories, for example. Today, children grow up without being aware of the richness of cultural heritage that their community has invented and passed on, and a sense of local history. Local archaeological sites can also be considered as part of the local heritage which needs to be cared for. In fact, the local communities in which this project was conducted express such sense of connection with their local archaeological site. While the future of cultural heritage – both local and archaeology - is a shared concern, a way to work together between archaeologists and local communities in Sudan has not been actively explored, especially in a practical sense.

In order to develop sustainable futures between the site and the community, this research focused on integrating the issues of the site and local heritage into one educational resource for local schoolchildren. The emphasis was given to closely working together with local people in every step of the making of the book under three principles: Exploration, Continuity, Locality, determined during the discussion. The result is an introductory booklet in Arabic and English for students in the local communities– Abri, Amara East and Ernetta - to learn and explore by comparing past and present, encouraging children to ask questions to parents and grandparents about the lifestyles, agriculture, language, oral histories and archaeology in their communities. It is the first effort in Sudan that integrates not only living and archaeological heritage but also unites the knowledge of international specialists and the local community together into one booklet for children. The booklet is to be distributed to all eight primary and secondary schools in the communities as well as a teachers’ training centre in Abri. A pilot heritage programme that used the book and its concept was also held at a local school. The programme is to be shared among teachers in the region by a local teacher who also volunteered to help develop the book, together with distribution of the books to students.

An approach that sees archaeologists and local community work together for the future of cultural heritage is an important endeavour in Sudan and elsewhere in the world. Especially in Sudan where archaeology is mostly practiced by international teams, this type of practice could help by breaking down the boundaries between foreign specialists and local people. The project has been an essential step towards discussing the shared future of local heritage beyond such boundaries with local people and other archaeologists. The most rewarding outcome for the local community was that the book-making process and the booklet itself have become an opportunity to raise awareness of their local heritage among the community. Continuing efforts to care for their heritage have already been discussed among them. It also empowered them by raising awareness that their rural community also has rich culture and history to tell and pass on. At an annual Sudan archaeology colloquium in London in May 2017, this effort was highlighted to archaeologists who carry out fieldworks in Sudan. It has helped to raise awareness among archaeologists of the importance of community engagement, and will likely lead to further collaborative heritage projects in Sudan. The booklet is free to download from the Amara West Research Project Blog:
in English https://britishmuseumamarawestblog.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/life-in-the-heart-of-nubia_childrens-book-2017_english-compressed.pdf;
in Arabic https://britishmuseumamarawestblog.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/life-in-the-heart-of-nubia_childrens-book-2017_arabic-compressed.pdf



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