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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2015 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  (A)共同研究助成  (A) Joint Research Grants
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D15-R-0590
題目
(Project Title)
災害からの長期的復興におけるボランティアの役割―災害に強いコミュニティの構築に向けた官民の連携―
The Role of Volunteers in Long-term Disaster Recovery: Facilitating co-production for resilient communities
 
代表者名
(Representative)
デボラ・ブラックマン
Deborah Blackman
代表者所属
(Organization)
ニューサウスウェールズ大学
School of Business, University of New South Wales
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 4,000,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

本プロジェクトの包括的な目標は、災害からの長期的復興において官民連携を促進し、その取り組みを管理するボランティア・コミュニティの可能性について探ることである。具体的には以下の3点について調査・研究を行う。
(1) よりよい復興をめざすうえで官民連携が持つ意味を検証する。官民が効果的に連携し、復興政策の策定に住民が参加していれば、政策への支持が得られやすいと予想される。
(2) 復興における官民の連携についてボランティアが果たす役割を検証する。
(3) 災害後の社会資本の整備状況と、社会資本が官民の連携と長期的復興に与える影響を検証する。
 本プロジェクトの成果は、ニュージーランド・クライストチャーチで活動するボランティア団体と共有して現場への応用を進めるとともに、海外の有力誌、シンポジウム、ソーシャルメディアなどでも発表する。
 大切なのは研究成果の実践である。復興政策の策定とその実行には官民の連携が重要であり、本プロジェクトによって政府や地域社会に変化を促し、災害への備えを強化することにつなげたい。

The overarching aim of this project is to investigate the potential of the volunteering community to facilitate and manage co-production in long-term disaster recovery. This project has three specific objectives. Objective 1: To determine the potential for co-production to improve long-term disaster recovery. Our premise is that the effective use of co-production could increase citizen support for new policy initiatives, if they are involved with their planning. Objective 2: To examine the potential of the volunteering community for effective co-production of recovery. Objective 3: To investigate post- disaster social capital development and its role in co-production and long-term recovery. The results will be a) shared with volunteer groups in Christchurch to determine practical applications, b) disseminated through publication of articles in international leading journals, symposium and social media. A greater weight will be placed on practical application. The results of this research should emphasize the importance of co-production for disaster policy and its implementation, and lead to ongoing change in government and community behaviours and more sustainable disaster preparedness.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)



While risks of natural disasters are continuing to increase, community disaster resilience and preparedness have never been more important. Despite increasing awareness of the importance of designing long-term disaster recovery initiatives, many interventions are not as effective as were anticipated. This research project aimed to investigate the potential of the volunteering community in facilitating and managing co-production with government services to improve long-term disaster recovery. A case study of Christchurch, New Zealand, where earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 seriously affected the local community and damaged infrastructure, provided the empirically contents for the research. The project had three specific objectives:

Objective 1: To determine the potential for co-production to improve long-term disaster recovery. Our premise was that the effective use of co-production could increase citizen support for new policy initiatives if they are involved with their planning.

Objective 2: To examine the potential of the volunteering community for effective co-production of recovery.

Objective 3: To investigate post-disaster social capital development and its role in co-production and long-term recovery.

The project commenced with a literature review to identify gaps in the area of disaster recovery research. We found little empirical research that focused on the facilitation of effective co-production and the role of key community actors. Also, whereas it is well recognized that social capital plays an important role in co-production the type of social capital that matters most for this process was not sufficiently investigated in the literature. We proceeded on the assumption that bridging social capital was the most critical form of social capital for long-term recovery because it enables the sharing of knowledge across weakly-knit communities and fosters social interactions, thereby enabling the creation of innovative interventions. This approach helped identify sites for fieldwork and design questions for stakeholder interviews.

In February 2017, the team conducted a first round of fieldwork and stakeholder interviews. Fieldwork involved visits to re-construction sites in the CBD and in the ‘Red Zone’ where pre-disaster communities were torn apart and social capital lost. The 45 participants were representatives from community groups, the national recovery agency, local councils, business and immigrant communities and volunteer groups (including: City Council, Regenerate Christchurch, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch Heritage Limited, Canterbury Employers’ Chamber of Commerce, Gap Filler, Volunteer Army, Farmy Army).

Analysis of the interview data using the NVIVO qualitative analysis package revealed structural themes in sustainable community development within the context of long-term recovery. Interviews revealed several challenges that may have hindered post-disaster community resilience: 1) lack of communication between government and local community; 2) lack of leadership; 3) a demotivated and disenfranchised local community; 4) a tokenistic approach by the local government; 5) no clear framework (coordination) among diverse groups; and 6) a lack of trust between central government, local government and community members. These findings suggest that co-production and bridging social capital were conspicuously absent in the recovery process and therefore contributed little to improving long-term recovery. Nevertheless, several long-term recovery storylines emerged from interviews, which highlighted the potential and importance of community co-production leveraged by bridging social capital. For instance, planning discussions about the redevelopment of the ‘Red Zone’ could be facilitated through a cross-community workshop which might lead to better long-term outcomes.

In December 2017, a community workshop was held in Christchurch, with 13 participants from a range of social and community organisations (YWCA Christchurch, Social Equity & Wellbeing Network (SEWN), Sustainable Otautahi Christchurch (SOC), Volunteering Canterbury, Wainoni/Avonside Community Services Trust, Christchurch Multicultural Council). The findings from the previous round of interviews were presented and discussed. In particular, workshop moderators steered the discussion towards two themes: a) dealing with challenges and community volunteering and b) the role of volunteering organisations in long-term recovery. Drawing from the workshop’s key contributions, the project team further analysed the interview data to refine and update the findings.

A workshop to discuss project findings was organised in April 2018 in Canberra, Australia involving eight academics and practitioners from Australia and New Zealand. At the workshop, we discussed:

a) Community within a complex system: who are the actors and who are the co-producing agents? and

b) Social capital: is it bridging but not bonding, how do volunteer organisations contribute, and a future research agenda.

Workshop sessions were shared through social media. Suggestions for future research into long-term recovery were made with respect to various fields of research: social capital, community, context, disaster policy/planning/governance, health and well-being, leadership, system, definition of long-term recovery and co-production. The team will work to further refine the research topic for future projects. The project was completed as scheduled and the team is working on the dissemination of outcomes. Through this research project, the team has established a good working relationship with researchers at University of Canterbury, the local university in Christchurch.

As of the completion time of the project (30 April 2018), the team has published one conference paper (presented at the SBE16, International High-Performance Built Environments Conference, 17-18 November, 2016, Sydney, Australia) and one journal paper (published in Technological Forecasting & Social Change, vol. 121, pp. 89-98. 2017). The team is currently working on the publication of a special issue in an international leading journal focusing on long-term disaster recovery, heterogeneities of co-production and social capital.

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