Japan and Vietnam are observing changes in demographics and family structures while sharing traditional norms of filial piety and increasing withdrawal of family caregivers. Japan relies on the public long-term care insurance program in elderly care provision. Japan is believed to face an enormous increase in costs for long-term care in future and is significant to economize the cost of care via the concept of “community-based care” by changing the balance of care towards home, community-based services, and marketization. In Vietnam, family and community are playing key roles in elderly support. Vietnamese government is planning to enhance practical and institutional settings. The project will analyze current elderly support models among care diamonds of family, community, private and public sectors and policy; draw lessons and develop action plans for elderly in communities and grassroots policy action plans to local policy makers based on the result of contextual review, research findings, discussions and policy dialogue for mutual learning among policy makers, social and community workers through cooperative studies and mutual exchanges between two communes in Vietnam (i.e. Thach Chau commune, Ha Tinh province; and Pho Cuong commune, Quang Ngai province) and two communities in Japan (i.e. Kumamoto and Minamata city).