2016 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  (B)個人研究助成  (B) Individual Research Grants
(Grant Number)
(Project Title)
Positive Health Outcomes by Environmental Design: The role of spatial configuration in designing physical environment for people experiencing dementia
Farhana Ferdous
Department of Architecture, College of engineering and Architecture, Howard University
(Grant Amount)
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

    物理的な環境は高齢者が社会とかかわりを持つ上でどのような役割を果たすのか―このテーマは環境老年学 の中心的な課題として長年にわたって研究されてきた。世界の60歳以上の人口は2050年までに20億人 に達すると予測される一方で、認知症高齢者の数は現在およそ2,500万人。2040年には8,000万人を超えると見られている。
    そこで本プロジェクトでは、これまでの研究を基に、接続性(=移動のしやすさ)と統合性(=距離の近さ)に配慮して設計されたケア施設では、入居者はより活動的になり、社会とのつながりも促進される」との仮定に立って、認知症高齢者向けケア施設の居住環境を検証する 。

    The relationship between the physical environment and prevalence of social interaction have been a core topic of inquiry in environmental gerontology. By 2050, it has been estimated that the world will number 2 billion older adults, aged ≥60 years. Among them around 25 million people worldwide have dementia, and the number of people with dementia is predicted to exceed 80 million by 2040. A growing body of literature in the areas of environment-behavior studies shows that the physical environment affects positive behavioral and physical changes, in turn, affecting individual, group and organizational outcomes, but little research has focused on older adults especially those with cognitive impairment by examining the indoor-outdoor environment of care facilities. Based upon previous research this study hypothesizes that the spatial configurations of care facilities (indoor and outdoor) characterized as having greater connectivity (accessibility) and integration (proximity) should promote a greater occurrence of physical activity and social interaction, which often is viewed as the most therapeutic and directly related to the quality of residents' positive health outcome. As an expected outcome, this study will be able to establish that by combining physical activity with social interaction, the environmental design could have a protective effect against dementia.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)

From the last 40 years, the design of the physical environment in supporting dementia residents has been frequently mentioned in the research literature. The environmental design research literature has outlined the importance of social interaction and social network as one of the therapeutic goals to maintain the quality of life (QoL) for people experiencing dementia. Although several previous studies have conducted the empirical literature review to understand the physical environment and associated QoL in long-term care facilities (LTCF), no single study concentrated on the role of spatial design in social interaction. For elderly people with dementia, changes in their social or physical environment, or manifestations of dementia may have an influence on their social interaction and therefore, it is imperative to understand the factors associated with the physical environment, social interaction and thereby the improved quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to fill this gap and contribute to a better understanding of how ‘social interaction’, the most important determinants to measure QoL for people experiencing dementia could be influenced under different spatial design and environmental characteristics.
This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the published evidence from diversified sectors such as medical and health literature, environmental psychology, architecture, interior design, and evidence-based design literature. By reviewing relevant literature and discussing environmental design factors associated with social interaction as a determinant of QoL, this paper outlines several critical spatial design characteristics and a comprehensive set of spatial design overview for LTCF that shown to affect positive social interaction and QoL of the residents, staff and their caregivers. The summary of this review could influence the future design of care facilities and provide designers the effectiveness or the weaknesses of their design decisions. As an expected outcome, this applied research could enhance the value and professional practice knowledge of memory care design that have a positive ripple effect in the healthcare design industry.

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