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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2016 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  (B)個人研究助成  (B) Individual Research Grants
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D16-R-0341
題目
(Project Title)
日本とカナダにおける外国人収容の実態とその人権擁護―両国間の比較分析―
Ethnography of Immigration Detention and Migrant Advocacy in Japan and Canada: A comparative analysis of civil society in illiberal and liberal immigration regimes
代表者名
(Representative)
髙村 加珠恵
Kazue Takamura
代表者所属
(Organization)
マギル大学国際開発研究所
Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 1,100,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

    本プロジェクトの目的は、日本とカナダにおける外国人収容の実態と、支援市民団体が入国管理政策に与える影響を両国間において比較分析することにある。
    収容施設での原因不明の死、亡命希望者の長期収容、未成年者の収容、さらには母子の分離収容など、近年、被収容者の人権侵害は国際的な懸案事項となっている。こうした人権侵害は、日本、オーストラリア、米国、カナダといった民主主義大国においても報告されているが、収容の実態や被収容者の拘束状況、また不法滞在に関する社会の考え方や捉え方は、国ごとに大きく異なる。
    本プロジェクトでは、日本、カナダ両国における外国人収容の実態とそれに対する社会の受け止め方にフォーカスして比較分析し、そこから浮かび上がる問題点を検証する。

    The primary goal of this project is to compare the conditions of immigration detention in Japan and Canada, as well as the role of pro-migrant civic groups in affecting immigration detention policies. In recent years, emerging global concerns have arisen regarding human rights violations toward migrants including unexplained deaths in detention facilities, prolonged detention of asylum-seekers, detention of minors, and forceful family separation between detained mothers and young children. These human rights violations have been documented in major democratic countries including Japan, Australia, the United States, and Canada. However, there also exists significant variation across countries in terms of detention practice and conditions of detainees as well as the behavior and norms of civil society for responding to such violations. This study pays particular attention to the variation in immigration detention practice as well as civil society's capacity to address such variation through a comparison of Japan and Canada.

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)



Project Title

Ethnography of Immigration Detention and Migrant Advocacy in Japan and Canada: A Comparative Analysis of Civil Society in Illiberal and Liberal Immigration Regimes

Abstract
The primary goal of this project was to compare the conditions of immigration detention in Japan and Canada, as well as the role of pro-migrant civic groups in affecting immigration detention policies. In recent years, emerging global concerns have arisen regarding human rights violations toward migrants, including explained deaths in detention facilities, prolonged detention of asylum-seekers, and detention of minors. These human rights violations have been increasingly documented in major democratic countries including Japan, Australia, the United States, and Canada. However, there also exists significant variation across countries in terms of detention practice as well as behavior of civil society organizations defending migrant rights. This project paid particular attention to the variation by juxtaposing the contrasting cases of Japan’s illiberal immigration policy and Canada’s liberal immigration policy. Building on existing legal perspectives on immigration detention, this project has demonstrated the significance of a comparative ethnographic lens. Such an approach allows us to visualize the multidimensional variables that shape the conditions of detainees as well as the capacity and behavior of civil society. I have envisioned the following four analytical tasks. These include: (1) identifying the types of actors involved in migrant advocacy; (2) examining the key social variables that shape the conditions of detained migrants; (3) documenting the daily interactions between detainees and civic groups; and (4) analyzing the actual effects of pro-migrant civic groups on immigration policies. This study thus intended to provide a more nuanced analysis of capacity, behavior, and values of civil society through a distinct global dilemma of immigration detention.

Results of the research project
The results of my research project are manifested in the following ways. First, I organized panels on immigration detention in two major international conferences (Association for Asian Studies Annual Conferences in March 2017 as well as in March 2018). Both panels invited scholars of migration from various countries including Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, and the United States. We discussed the emerging concerns surrounding immigration detention and the plights of detained asylum-seekers and migrant in Asian migrant-receiving countries.
Second, I organized a total of three workshops in Canada and Japan. These include: (1) “Seminar on Mobility and Human Rights: Interrogating Immigration Detention in Japan” (co-organized with the Stateless Network and Professor Chen Tien-Shi) at Waseda University (Tokyo) on July 8, 2017; (2) “Forum on Migrant Workers’ Rights” (co-organized with the Association for the Rights of Household Workers) at McGill University (Montreal) on November 16, 2017; and (3) “Immigration Detention and Human Rights of Non-Status Migrants: An Emerging International Dilemma” (co-organized with Professor Junichi Akashi) at Tsukuba University (Ibaraki) on July 5, 2018. The main object of these events was to discuss the human rights of asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We discussed the plights of migrant detainees in Japan and Canada as well as the roles of civil society actors in these countries. In all these events, I invited diverse actors and stakeholders including NGOs (migrant advocacy groups), FBOs, human rights lawyers, former detainees, students, and scholars together in the workshops.
Third, I presented papers for major international academic conferences between May 2017 and April 2019. These include: (1) Association for Asian Studies Annual Conferences in March 2017 and March 2018; (2) International Political Science Association World Congress in July 2018; (3) Canadian Council for Southeast Asian Studies Biennial Meeting in October 2017;(4) International Convention of Asia Scholars Annual Meeting in July 2017; and (5) Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development in May 2017.
Fourth, I was a co-applicant of the conference grant entitled “International Network for Research and Advocacy and Policy on Immigration Detention.” The project was funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) in 2017.
Fifth, based on my field research in Japan, (1) I published a policy brief entitled “Human Rights of Non-Status Migrants in Japan” (co-authored with Erik Kuhonta, ISID Policy Brief PB-2017-07, Montreal: Institute for the Study of International Development, McGill University) in 2017. (2) I contributed a short essay entitled “Immigration Detention in Japan: Rethinking Multicultural Cohabitation” to Joint, Toyota Foundation Journal (No. 29) in 2019. (3) I submitted a report on immigration detention in Japan, under the name of a Japanese NGO Ushiku-no-kai, to the UN Committee on the Protection of Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (Draft General Comment No. 5 on migrants’ Rights to Liberty and Freedom from Arbitrary Detention) in April 2019. (4) Finally, I also wrote a paper entitled “The Migrant Surveillance Regime and the Plight of Migrant Detainees in Japan” and submitted to Contemporary Japan (revised version submitted on May 27, 2019). The journal article aims to examine Japan’s formation of a migrant surveillance regime through the lens of immigration detention. I will pay particular attention to the set of policies, practices, and discourses through which Japan’s migrant surveillance regime justifies its illiberal forms of control and dominance over precarious mobility of non-status migrants and asylum-seekers, who are collectively labeled as “deportable foreigners”.
Sixth, I actively engaged with local NGOs in order to raise awareness for the rights of detained asylum-seekers and migrants. For example, I gave a talk on immigration detention for a Japanese NGO, Amigos (or Kitakanto Iryo Sodankai) in July 2018. I invited Ms. Jenny Jeans (Action Réfugiés Montreal) to provide a lecture at McGill University in March 2019. I served as a commentator for the film screening of “ A Piece of Paradise” (a documentary on Filipina immigrants in Canada) held at Immigrant Workers Center in April 2019. I organized a forum on migrant rights with the Association for the Rights of Household Workers in November 2017. I also organized a workshop on immigration detention with Stateless Networks in Japan in July 2017. I actively engaged with Ushiku-no-Kai, Ushiku-tomono-kai, as well as Amigos during my field research in Japan (2017-2019). I submitted a report on immigration detention to the UN Committee on the Protection of Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families for under the name of Ushiku-no-kai in April 2019. I am continuously working with these local migrant advocacy groups (NGOs) in order to raise awareness of the rights of detained asylum-seekers and migrants.

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