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助成対象詳細(Details)

   

2016 研究助成 Research Grant Program  /  (A)共同研究助成  (A) Joint Research Grants
助成番号
(Grant Number)
D16-R-0718
題目
(Project Title)
ディアギタ先住民社会の持続可能な開発戦略―アンデス東南地域における文化遺産の調査および保護―
 
Sustainable Development Strategies for Native American Diaguita Communities: Cultural heritage research and protection in the Eastern South Andes, Argentina
代表者名
(Representative)
フリアン・サラサール
Julián Salazar
代表者所属
(Organization)
コルドバ国立大学
National University of Córdoba, Argentina
助成金額
(Grant Amount)
 1,400,000
企画書・概要 (Abstract of Project Proposal)

    本プロジェクトの目的は、遺跡見学ツアーや文化遺産の保護活動への地域住民の積極的な参加を促進することで、アルゼンチン北西部にあるディアギタ先住民の居住地域において、科学的調査に基づいた持続可能な経済的成長戦略を構築することにある。
    アルゼンチンでは先住民であるディアギタに対する関心が低く、彼らの文化遺産は危機的状況にある。またディアギタの生活様式が狩猟採集から農耕牧畜へ移行した経緯もあまり知られていない。そこで本プロジェクトでは、これらの社会的・文化的課題を総合的に解決することをめざす。
    具体的には、以下の4項目について段階を踏んで取り組みを実施したい。
    ①トゥクマン州クンブレス・カルチャキエス 南部で考古学的調査を実施
    ②地方政府 ・連邦政府の法規定、国際法、及びディアギタの信仰に基づいた文化遺産保護・展示計画を立案
    ③文化遺産 に対する意識の向上と保護活動への参加を促進するため、地域住民 と地元ツアーガイドに文化遺産の意義を説明
    ④遺跡見学ツアーを実施
    これらの取り組みの成果として、クンブレス・カルチャキエスで保護が必要な文化遺産を掲載した地図 の発行、史跡見学ツアーの実施(5回)、地元ガイドの育成、文化遺産 に関するプロモーション用パンフレットの配布、考古学的調査に関する書籍の出版、などを見込んでいる。

    This project is aimed at applying scientific research to develop sustainable economic strategies for Diaguita Communities (Northwest Argentina) through the creation of archaeological touristic circuits and at the same time generating strong commitment of local inhabitants with Cultural Heritage protection. It represents a synthetic solution for three main social and cultural issues: Native American Communities exclusion in Argentina, material Cultural Heritage exposed to risky conditions and knowledge gap on the transition from forager to agropastoral adaptations in the region. In order to implement the objectives of the project four complementary stages were planned: 1) Archeological research in the southern Cumbres Calchaquies, Tucuman, Argentina. 2) Development of Cultural Heritage Protection and Exhibition Plan, according to estate, federal and international legislation and native communities' beliefs. 3) Impartation of the relevance of Cultural Heritage not only to the Community, but also to local tour guides, in order to generate consciousness and commitment with cultural resources. 4) Archaeological Touristic circuits implementation.
    The execution of the project is going to generate a Cultural Heritage Protection Chart in Cumbres Calchaquies, Five archaeological touristic circuits, Formation of local guides, diffusion material to enhance the public knowledge on the product and an Archaeological Research Book. 

実施報告書・概要 (Summary of Final Report)



The project “Sustainable development strategies for Native American Diaguita Communities: Cultural Heritage research and protection in the Eastern South Andes, Argentina” was thought as a synthetic solution for three social and cultural issues (i.e. ethnical and cultural exclusion, cultural heritage destruction and the knowledge gap on the local adaptations to agriculture). The main strategy for Material Cultural Heritage Conservation was the design that integrated high quality archaeological research and sustainable use of these resources in touristic activities managed by Native American Diaguita Communities.
Consequently, it was considered that this project would contribute to remedy these problems by strengthening community ties, linking land and identity, the present and the past. It was aimed to generate the conditions for the construction of intercultural knowledge committed with local views and needs through different methodologies.
Bearing in mind that the Tafí Valley constitutes one of the most important tourist destinations in the Tucuman province, and that cultural tourism has become an area of growing interest in recent years, the possibility of tracing certain archaeological interpretive circuits within the work area with the objective of being exposed to the public can generate the promotion of the local economy by increasing the supply of original attractions.
In order to implement the objectives, during 2017, 2018, and 2019 different activities were carried out. The first step was to integrate local communities and other social agents in the project: A series of formation courses for local guides were taught; several meetings were organized in the local schools, aimed at explaining the relevance of Material Cultural Heritage and Local History to primary and secondary students; the project was presented in two communitarian and university fairs.
The development of scientific aspects of the project implied several archaeological fieldwork campaigns in Anfama and Tafí valley. Despite the seven hours walk across the yunga steep topography, carrying all the equipment in mule caravan, it is a privileged zone to carry out archaeological research. Six campaigns with a crew of 10/14 members were carried out, in which we surveyed, discovered, mapped, and excavated 2000 years old archaeological sites. Because of these tasks, we have identified Formative and Late Intermediate periods structures, lithic sculptures, or Huancas, and scattered sites with carved rocks. We have excavated house clusters of Formative period, dating several contexts, and developed different studies on material culture (XRF provenance studies of obsidian, identification of silicon phytoliths and starch grains, stylistic and functional studies of pottery vessels and stone tools, etc.).
The sites discovered, recorded, and excavated in this project are outstanding manifestations of the villager settings in the region. Besides archaeological remains in surface, solid architectural remains, lithic sculptures, unique location, and surrounding landscapes, they are important remains to understand historical transformations in the region. Early villages constitute relevant legacies of the human experience on the earth. The whole system of changes that human beings developed in the moment of consolidation of agriculture and sedentarism represent one of the greatest transformations in Human History.
Finally the archeological circuits were definitively taken to the field. The paths were planned with local and Diaguita native communities in order to integrate archaeological interest points (with excavated features), local sacred places and panoramic views, considering and reducing the different impacts in the landscape. Several explanatory stops were materialized by placing interpretative metallic signs. In 2020 this signs will include a QR code to generate an augmented reality framework to the circuits. Furthermore the circuits were digitalized in the project web page, where Digital 360° Circuits were modeled and are actually free access resources (http://arqueologiatafi.com). Within this web page, information about the circuits, the project, diaguita community, cultural heritage and funding is shared.

The achievements of the project could be summarized in five main aspects:
1) Several archaeological sites were discovered, mapped and excavated, improving the scientific knowledge on human adaptations and social processes in the region.
2) Six archaeological touristic circuits were planned, designed and brought into being. This included the tracing of paths, the demarcation of explanatory stops with interpretive letters, the printing of an advertising brochure and the formation of local guides. As a complement, Digital 360° Circuits were designed and uploaded to the web site.
3) A group of local guides was instructed in order to give them the skills to manage the tracks, to guide visitors and to face unexpected situations regarding cultural material heritage damages.
4) The main idea of the project was socialized. The potential of knowledge and preservation of cultural heritage to become an integrative strength was taken and reproduced by several agents apart from our team: Diaguita authorities, local commoners, schools, and educative authorities.
5) The continuation of the project was insured by an enhancement of the team formation and the acquisition of new funding to face next stages.


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